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FGM

Summary:


FGM 101: Infographic

Of the four Sunni schools of sharia, it is the Shafi’is who have said that circumcision of girls is compulsory. TheReliance of the Traveller, a respected manual of Shafi’i jurisprudence, states  “Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the clitoris” (section e4.3).  [The English translation by Nuh Ha Mim Keller (certified by Al-Azhar University) disguises the true meaning of the Arabic text by offering the following bogus English ‘translation’: “For men it consists of removing the prepuce from the penis, and for women, removing the prepuce (Ar. Bazr) of the clitoris (n: not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert).” ]

http://www.andrewbostom.org/2008/01/clarification-of-islamic-law-support-for-female-genital-mutilation-by-dr-mark-durie/

For those that deny FGM has anything to do with Islam:

FGM is practised predominantly within Muslim societies,[7] but it also exists within Christian and animist groups.[8]It is found only within and adjacent to Muslim communities,[8] but it is not required by Islam—indeed, Muslim scholars have declared it unIslamic[9]—and predates it by centuries.[b] There is mention of it on a Greek papyrusfrom 163 BCE and a possible indirect reference to it on a coffin from Egypt's Middle Kingdom (c. 1991–1786 BCE).[10] It has been found among Coptic Christians in Egypt, Orthodox Christians in Ethiopia, and Protestantsand Catholics in Sudan and Kenya.[11] The only Jewish group known to have practised it are the Beta Israel of Ethiopia.[c]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

In 2009, the Fatwa Committee of Malaysia's National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs ruled that "female circumcision", as it has become known, was obligatory for Muslims but if harmful must be avoided.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-12-07/an-malaysia-debate-over-female-circumcision/4416298

Non-Muslim women in Indonesia and Philippines being subjected to FGM when marrying a Muslim man which entails converting to Islam.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QT3Tq6FfG0cC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=borneo+animists+fgm&source=bl&ots=C8bXvdX8SY&sig=c6QkT5MPnez6F8RbtYTBqBgIYaE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEwMam-Z7VAhUBLhoKHUMrDUEQ6AEITDAF#v=onepage&q=borneo%20animists%20fgm&f=false

Also this fatwa: https://islamqa.info/en/60314 

Circumcision is not an inherited custom as some people claim, rather it is prescribed in Islam and the scholars are unanimously agreed that it is prescribed. Not a single Muslim scholar – as far as we know – has said that circumcision is not prescribed. 

However, there is considerable debate within Islam regarding FGM:

Many fatwas have been issued on FGM to both support and oppose the practice. This article helps summarise the position: http://www.stopfgmmideast.org/fatwas-against-fgm/

In the UK and very commendably, "[the] Muslim Council of Britain says female genital mutilation is 'un-Islamic'" however it is unclear on what authority their claim that FGM "no longer linked to the teaching of Islam" is based.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jun/23/female-genital-mutilation-muslim-council-britain-unislamic-condemn

The position of the four main schools of Sunni sharia is:

  • The Shafi'i school considers female circumcision to be wajib (obligatory).[36]
  • The Hanbali school considers female circumcision to be makrumah (honorable) and strongly encouraged, to obligatory.[37]
  • The Maliki school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (optional) and preferred.[37]
  • The Hanafi school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (preferred).[37]

The differences in jurist opinions focuses around several hadith from the Sunni collections:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

A summary by country (of variable data quality) can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevalence_of_female_genital_mutilation_by_country

Summary: 

FGM InfoGraphic - Clarion Project

Summary: 

Tolerance is a virtue and intolerance is hate, or so we are told. This ideology has led to the toleration of evil. After all, who wants to be a hater? Those who condemn the evil caused by the doctrine of political Islam are called intolerant and haters. But we must realize that intolerance of evil is a virtue. Thing is to be intolerant of: killing Christians and Yazidis in the Middle East and Africa; jihad of rape, inbreeding, child marriage and female genital mutilation. To reduce human suffering, we must all become intolerant of evil.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
12/03/2018
Summary: 

A father has gone on trial accused of beating his children and organising for his nine-year-old daughter to undergo female genital mutilation to punish her. Someone had come to the family home on two occasions and used a razor to cut the young girl as she lay on a mat in the hallway, the Old Bailey heard. She had cried in pain and begged for it to stop but her father had simply continued “egging” the cutter on, she said in an interview.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
05/03/2018
Summary: 

A family court judge has decided that a little girl is at risk of being subjected to genital mutilation because her mother’s maternal instinct has been overridden by religious and cultural pressure. Judge Robert Jordan has made the youngster, who will turn two this summer, the subject of an order aimed at stopping her being subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM). Council social services bosses with welfare responsibility had asked the judge to make the toddler the subject of an FGM protection order.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
19/02/2018
Summary: 

The National Secular Society has called on the UK Government to "follow the lead" of Icelandic lawmakers who are expected to ban cutting boys' genitals for non-medical reasons. A draft bill currently before the Icelandic parliament says circumcision without consent is a violation of children's human rights.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
26/02/2018
Country: 
Somalia
News Date: 
25/02/2018
Summary: 

They banned two types of FGM, but made the third mandatory. Why did the Muslim clerics issue this fatwa? Don’t they know what every non-Muslim journalist in the West knows, that FGM is cultural and has nothing to do with Islam? Here it is again, for those who are not paying attention:

Country: 
Switzerland
News Date: 
24/02/2018
Summary: 

The Islamic Central Council of Switzerland (IZRS) has defended the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM), claiming that Islamic law justifies the practice. The organisation released an “Islamic legal opinion” this week arguing that a form of so-called “female circumcision”, involving the removal of parts of the genitals, is justified, Swiss newspaper Tages Anzeiger reports.

Summary: 

The 14th century instruction manual for Sharia law for Sunni Shafi Muslims is the “Reliance of the Traveller”. This is the doctrinal manual for Sharia courts for the largest Islamic school. This is the reference and the text in that reference book.

e4.3: Circumcision is obligatory for both men and women. … for women [it consists of] removing the prepuce of the clitoris.

  • Note: this more recent translation into English of the Reliance of the Traveller, deceptively translates the classical Arabic by translating the word "Hufaad", which means clitoris, and not "prepuce of the clitoris".
  • But either way, BOTH translations are FGM, the correct, and the deliberately disingenuous.

From all of the above, we can say that FGM is overwhelmingly and predominantly a Muslim issue both in terms of real world outcomes of the practice of FGM, and in terms of the Islamic jurisprudence of FGM, despite the fact that it existed in pre-Islamic times. Islam took over the practice of FGM, and has since come to own it.

Country: 
France
News Date: 
13/02/2018
Summary: 

The threat of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the heavily migrant-populated Seine-Saint-Denis area in the suburbs of Paris could affect as many as 30 per cent of the children in the area, according to a French sociologist. French sociologist and director of the Group for the Abolition of Sexual Mutilation (GAMS), Isabelle Gillette-Faye has claimed that the prevalence of FGM in the suburbs of Paris, often referred to as no-go areas, in the Île-de-France region are concerning. Gillette-Faye said that

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