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FGM

Summary:


Of the four Sunni schools of sharia, it is the Shafi’is who have said that circumcision of girls is compulsory. TheReliance of the Traveller, a respected manual of Shafi’i jurisprudence, states  “Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the clitoris” (section e4.3).  [The English translation by Nuh Ha Mim Keller (certified by Al-Azhar University) disguises the true meaning of the Arabic text by offering the following bogus English ‘translation’: “For men it consists of removing the prepuce from the penis, and for women, removing the prepuce (Ar. Bazr) of the clitoris (n: not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert).” ]

http://www.andrewbostom.org/2008/01/clarification-of-islamic-law-support-for-female-genital-mutilation-by-dr-mark-durie/

For those that deny FGM has anything to do with Islam:

In 2009, the Fatwa Committee of Malaysia's National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs ruled that "female circumcision", as it has become known, was obligatory for Muslims but if harmful must be avoided.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-12-07/an-malaysia-debate-over-female-circumcision/4416298

Non-Muslim women in Indonesia and Philippines being subjected to FGM when marrying a Muslim man which entails converting to Islam.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QT3Tq6FfG0cC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=borneo+animists+fgm&source=bl&ots=C8bXvdX8SY&sig=c6QkT5MPnez6F8RbtYTBqBgIYaE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEwMam-Z7VAhUBLhoKHUMrDUEQ6AEITDAF#v=onepage&q=borneo%20animists%20fgm&f=false

In the UK and very commendably, "[the] Muslim Council of Britain says female genital mutilation is 'un-Islamic'" however it is unclear on what authority their claim that FGM "no longer linked to the teaching of Islam" is based.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jun/23/female-genital-mutilation-muslim-council-britain-unislamic-condemn

The position of the four main schools of Sunni sharia is:

  • The Shafi'i school considers female circumcision to be wajib (obligatory).[36]
  • The Hanbali school considers female circumcision to be makrumah (honorable) and strongly encouraged, to obligatory.[37]
  • The Maliki school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (optional) and preferred.[37]
  • The Hanafi school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (preferred).[37]

The differences in jurist opinions focuses around several hadith from the Sunni collections:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

A summary by country (of variable data quality) can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevalence_of_female_genital_mutilation_by_country

Type: Article

From: Anne Marie Waters
Sent: 28 February 2017 04:32
To: foi@west-midlands.police.uk
Subject: Freedom of Information Request: Female Genital Mutilation

Dear Sir/Madam, 

Having read some of the tweets posted by West Midlands Police (@WMPolice) recently, I would be grateful if you could respond to the following questions as required under the Freedom of Information Act.

The people.

 

I have lived in Indonesia for 5 years. It is a segregated country with 26 different provinces (regions) that are occupied by different peoples with different religions and different beliefs going back thousands of years: the Javanese, the Batak (North Sumatra), the Minang (West Sumatra), the Malayu (South East Sumatra), and the Balinese (Bali). Each of these different peoples have distinct traditions and have constantly fought for superiority within Indonesia and in some regions,. Still today there are in- house disagreements.

 

Type: Link

Type: News

Country: 
India
News Date: 
13/09/2017
Summary: 

Mariya Taher was seven when strangers forced her to the ground and cut her clitoral hood. She doesn’t remember much, only laughter and friendly chatter before a sharp pain.

Country: 
United States of America (the)
News Date: 
09/06/2017
Summary: 
  • The mosque's board denounced Elsayed's comments on Monday; two days later, it placed him on administrative leave
  • Elsayed later issued a clarification through the mosque's website saying that he should have avoided his comments on hyper-sexuality
  • The imam has not been without controversy, such as his support of Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, convicted of plotting to assassinate then-President Geroge W Bush
Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
04/08/2017
Summary: 

He is accused of promoting the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM). For two days those opposed to his beliefs on FGM have held a peaceful protest outside the new Bohra Masjid mosque in Hockley.

Country: 
United States of America (the)
News Date: 
22/08/2017
Summary: 

Earlier this year, Federal authorities broke up an FGM network in the United States that had mutilated unknown numbers of young girls. The FGM network was linked to the Muslim sect of the Dawoodi Bohra. Now a Canadian survey shows that a disturbingly high percentage of Muslim Dawoodi Bohra women have undergone FGM.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
23/06/2014
Summary: 

The Muslim Council of Britain, the country's largest Muslim organisation, has condemned the practice of female genital mutilation as "un-Islamic" and told its members that FGM risks bringing their religion into disrepute.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
09/09/2013
Summary: 
  • Omar Addow struck off by General Dental Council last month 
  • Hearing found the dentist 'intended to perform the procedure at some point' 
  • Addow, 56, reportedly told woman he would carry out female genital mutilation on her nieces
  •  

Country: 
Maldives
News Date: 
01/12/2011
Summary: 

Recently, the syncretic religious traditions and lax attitudes towards religious practices have been changing rapidly, greatly aided by the presence of social Islamic organizations, and their use of mass media and abundant resources. The level of religiosity is increasing; old traditions and customs are being dismissed as being bid’ah (inventions contrary to the teachings of Islam) and certain segments of the society are growing intensely conservative.

Country: 
Iraq
News Date: 
10/08/2005
Summary: 

A German aid group finds the first solid proof of the practice, thought to be prevalent in the Middle East. "We knew Germian was one of the areas most affected by the practice," says Thomas von der Osten-Sacken, director of a German nongovernmental organization called WADI, which has been based in Iraq for more than a decade. Of 1,554 women and girls over 10 years old interviewed by WADI's local medical team, 907, or more than 60 percent, said they had had the operation. 

....

Country: 
Germany
News Date: 
19/07/2017
Summary: 

Germany has seen a massive increase in the number of women and girls affected by female genital mutilation (FGM), as a result of mass migration from Africa and the Middle East. Women’s rights NGO Terre des Femmes estimates that around 58,000 women living in Germany have undergone the procedure, and that 13,000 more are at risk — figures which have risen by 10,000 and 4,000, respectively, since 2016.

Country: 
Germany
News Date: 
19/07/2017
Summary: 

Germany experienced a sharp increase in the number of women who have been subjected to genital mutilation, which is illegal in the country, an advocacy group has said.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
10/03/2017
Summary: 

A COMMUNITY midwife who supports Glasgow asylum seekers affected by female genital mutilation says she is still shocked by the barbarity of some of the cases. Hilary Alba sees around 12 women a month who have been affected by FGM as well as supporting expectant mothers who have experienced trafficking and other abuses.

Country: 
United States of America (the)
News Date: 
09/06/2017
Summary: 

This shouldn’t surprise anyone, because FGM is Islamic.

“Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) (by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the bazr ‘clitoris’ [this is called khufaadh ‘female circumcision’]).” — ‘Umdat al-Salik e4.3, translated by Mark Durie, The Third Choice, p. 64

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
06/06/2017
Summary: 

Twenty new cases of female genital mutilation (FGM) have been reported in Nottingham - with the majority of the procedures being carried out on victims under the age of four. New figures published by NHS Digital on Tuesday (June 6) show that the new cases were recorded between January and March this year.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
06/02/2017
Summary: 

A case of female genital mutilation (FGM) is either discovered or treated at a medical appointment in England every hour, a charity has said.

Country: 
India
News Date: 
29/04/2016
Summary: 

MUMBAI: Efforts may be on to end the practice of female genital mutilation that young girls in the Dawoodi Bohra community are made to undergo in India but their spiritual leader may not be convinced yet as he went on to publicly encourage the act of khatna (female circumcision) albeit indirectly, in his recent sermon at the Saifee Mosque.

Also: https://www.jihadwatch.org/2016/05/muslim-cleric-urges-female-genital-mu...

Country: 
Russian Federation (the)
News Date: 
22/08/2016
Summary: 

Muslim Leader Says FGM Necessary to Curb Girls’ Sexuality

Country: 
Oman
News Date: 
01/01/2013
Summary: 

A year and a half ago I wrote a column titled ‘Woman with an incense burner’ where I tried as delicately as possible to highlight the issues concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) in Oman, and Dhofar in particular where the practice is still very common.

Country: 
Pakistan
News Date: 
26/12/2011
Summary: 

In certain cafés close to medical colleges in Pakistan, and of course within the institutions themselves, students studying gynaecology speak of some unexpected sights they have seen.

“Recently, we examined a woman who complained of pain in her genital region. We were shocked to see when we examined her that she had suffered some mutilation of her private parts. I have read about these practices but I didn’t know they took place here,” Zeba Khan, a 4th year medical student, told IRIN.

Country: 
Thailand
News Date: 
01/04/2015
Summary: 

Eight-week-old baby Amiyah grimaces when sunlight falls on her face as though she isn’t used to the idea of having been born yet. On a Saturday afternoon, in Thailand’s southern Pattani province, her Muslim mother has brought her to a small clinic so midwife Dah can slice her clitoris for sunat.The practice, a form of female genital mutilation (FGM), has been banned by the World Health Organisation.

Country: 
Indonesia
News Date: 
26/04/2017
Country: 
Indonesia
News Date: 
24/01/2013
Summary: 

 The Indonesian Council of Ulema (MUI) is in favour of female circumcision (and men) that, although it can not be considered mandatory, it is still "morally recommended." 

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
06/02/2014
Summary: 

A 17-year-old student is calling on Michael Gove to help end female genital mutilation in Britain by asking headteachers to train and inform teachers and parents about the horrors of the practice. Fahma Mohamed is urging the education secretary to write to the leaders of all primary and secondary schools, urging them to flag up the dangers of female genital mutilation (FGM) before the summer holidays, when girls are at the greatest risk. 

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
17/02/2017
Summary: 

A SHOCKING number of new cases of female genital mutilation have been reported across the Southampton region, figures show.

Country: 
France
News Date: 
10/02/2014
Summary: 

The girls were ready to leave for London on Eurostar when French police arrived at the school gate to take them into care and their parents into custody. It is doubtful the cousins, both six, had been told why they were crossing the Channel. But activists campaigning against female genital mutilation (FGM) told the Guardian they had learned that the parents were planning to have them "cut", and tipped off the police just in time.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
11/03/2014
Summary: 

A London MP has called for mandatory medical checks on schoolgirls to end Britain’s “shameful” failure to secure prosecutions for female genital mutilation. Diane Abbott said the country needed to face up to the need for “routine medical examinations” as she warned that thousands of girls in the capital remained at risk of mutilation. She said the approach had been successful in France, where 100 convictions for FGM have been secured since the start of the Eighties, and it was time for similar action to be taken in Britain.

Country: 
Egypt
News Date: 
06/09/2016
Summary: 

It was an outrageous argument, by any measure: Women should “reduce their sexual desires” because Egyptian men are “sexually weak.” This is what an Egyptian lawmaker, Elhamy Agina, claimed over the weekend in making an argument in favor of female genital mutilation or FGM.

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