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FGM

Summary:


Of the four Sunni schools of sharia, it is the Shafi’is who have said that circumcision of girls is compulsory. TheReliance of the Traveller, a respected manual of Shafi’i jurisprudence, states  “Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the clitoris” (section e4.3).  [The English translation by Nuh Ha Mim Keller (certified by Al-Azhar University) disguises the true meaning of the Arabic text by offering the following bogus English ‘translation’: “For men it consists of removing the prepuce from the penis, and for women, removing the prepuce (Ar. Bazr) of the clitoris (n: not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert).” ]

http://www.andrewbostom.org/2008/01/clarification-of-islamic-law-support-for-female-genital-mutilation-by-dr-mark-durie/

For those that deny FGM has anything to do with Islam:

In 2009, the Fatwa Committee of Malaysia's National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs ruled that "female circumcision", as it has become known, was obligatory for Muslims but if harmful must be avoided.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-12-07/an-malaysia-debate-over-female-circumcision/4416298

The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) is bucking a United Nation’s campaign to ban female circumcision, demanding that the government keep the practice legal.

http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/01/22/mui-pushes-govt-circumcise-girls.html

Indonesian Ulema in favour of female circumcision: a "human right"

http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Indonesian-Ulema-in-favour-of-female-circumcision:-a-human-right-26948.html

Non-Muslim women in Indonesia and Philippines being subjected to FGM when marrying a Muslim man which entails converting to Islam.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QT3Tq6FfG0cC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=borneo+animists+fgm&source=bl&ots=C8bXvdX8SY&sig=c6QkT5MPnez6F8RbtYTBqBgIYaE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEwMam-Z7VAhUBLhoKHUMrDUEQ6AEITDAF#v=onepage&q=borneo%20animists%20fgm&f=false

Also this fatwa: https://islamqa.info/en/60314 

Circumcision is not an inherited custom as some people claim, rather it is prescribed in Islam and the scholars are unanimously agreed that it is prescribed. Not a single Muslim scholar – as far as we know – has said that circumcision is not prescribed. 

However, there is considerable debate within Islam regarding FGM:

FGM is practised predominantly within Muslim societies,[7] but it also exists within Christian and animist groups.[8]It is found only within and adjacent to Muslim communities,[8] but it is not required by Islam—indeed, Muslim scholars have declared it unIslamic[9]—and predates it by centuries.[b] There is mention of it on a Greek papyrusfrom 163 BCE and a possible indirect reference to it on a coffin from Egypt's Middle Kingdom (c. 1991–1786 BCE).[10] It has been found among Coptic Christians in Egypt, Orthodox Christians in Ethiopia, and Protestantsand Catholics in Sudan and Kenya.[11] The only Jewish group known to have practised it are the Beta Israel of Ethiopia.[c]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

Many fatwas have been issued on FGM to both support and oppose the practice. This article helps summarise the position: http://www.stopfgmmideast.org/fatwas-against-fgm/

In the UK and very commendably, "[the] Muslim Council of Britain says female genital mutilation is 'un-Islamic'" however it is unclear on what authority their claim that FGM "no longer linked to the teaching of Islam" is based.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jun/23/female-genital-mutilation-muslim-council-britain-unislamic-condemn

The position of the four main schools of Sunni sharia is:

  • The Shafi'i school considers female circumcision to be wajib (obligatory).[36]
  • The Hanbali school considers female circumcision to be makrumah (honorable) and strongly encouraged, to obligatory.[37]
  • The Maliki school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (optional) and preferred.[37]
  • The Hanafi school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (preferred).[37]

The differences in jurist opinions focuses around several hadith from the Sunni collections:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

A summary by country (of variable data quality) can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevalence_of_female_genital_mutilation_by_country

Summary: 

FGM InfoGraphic - Clarion Project

Country: 
Switzerland
News Date: 
13/07/2018
Summary: 

A Somali woman from canton Neuchâtel has been sentenced to eight months’ prison over the genital mutilation of her two daughters, in the first Swiss case of its kind after a law change.The girls were six and a half and seven when the procedure was carried out between 2013-2015 in Somalia and Ethiopia.

See also: https://creepingsharia.wordpress.com/2018/07/18/muslim-fgm-jail/

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
22/06/2018
Summary: 

There have been 1,030 new cases of female genital mutilation discovered in England alone between January and March 2018, according to NHS data. The report into FGM showed London was the worst affected, with 425 newly recorded incidents, followed by the North of England, with 275, the Midlands has 195 and the South of England has 110 – there were clearly a few cases where no fixed address could be given. The overwhelming majority of recorded victims hail from East Africa and Western Africa.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
12/06/2018
Summary: 

NEW victims of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Wiltshire have been seen by NHS services over the last year. Figures from NHS Digital show that somewhere in the county a doctor, nurse or midwife was shocked t find themselves treating an victim of FGM - where female genitals are cut, injured or changed for no medical reason - on at least two occasions in the last year. While around 6,400 women and girls with FGM were seen by NHS staff in England between April 2017 and March this year, an estimated 137,000 are thought to have been affected by it.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
04/05/2018
Summary: 

Wales is opening its first-ever female genital mutilation (FGM) clinic to provide medical and psychological help to victims of the practice imported from Africa and Asia.Wales is the second-smallest of the Home Nations which make up the United Kingdom, with a population of only around three million and relatively low level of immigration compared to neighbouring England — which already has five FGM clinics.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
27/04/2018
Summary: 

Doctors, nurses and teachers are still nervous of being branded racist if they speak to families about female genital mutilation, a leading researcher said. Professor Hazel Barrett, an expert in FGM, has developed an app to give professionals the confidence to flag up their concerns if they think a girl is at risk of being cut.

Summary: 

Tolerance is a virtue and intolerance is hate, or so we are told. This ideology has led to the toleration of evil. After all, who wants to be a hater? Those who condemn the evil caused by the doctrine of political Islam are called intolerant and haters. But we must realize that intolerance of evil is a virtue. Thing is to be intolerant of: killing Christians and Yazidis in the Middle East and Africa; jihad of rape, inbreeding, child marriage and female genital mutilation. To reduce human suffering, we must all become intolerant of evil.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
12/03/2018
Summary: 

A father has gone on trial accused of beating his children and organising for his nine-year-old daughter to undergo female genital mutilation to punish her. Someone had come to the family home on two occasions and used a razor to cut the young girl as she lay on a mat in the hallway, the Old Bailey heard. She had cried in pain and begged for it to stop but her father had simply continued “egging” the cutter on, she said in an interview.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
05/03/2018
Summary: 

A family court judge has decided that a little girl is at risk of being subjected to genital mutilation because her mother’s maternal instinct has been overridden by religious and cultural pressure. Judge Robert Jordan has made the youngster, who will turn two this summer, the subject of an order aimed at stopping her being subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM). Council social services bosses with welfare responsibility had asked the judge to make the toddler the subject of an FGM protection order.

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
19/02/2018
Summary: 

The National Secular Society has called on the UK Government to "follow the lead" of Icelandic lawmakers who are expected to ban cutting boys' genitals for non-medical reasons. A draft bill currently before the Icelandic parliament says circumcision without consent is a violation of children's human rights.

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