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FGM

Summary:


FGM 101: Infographic

Of the four Sunni schools of sharia, it is the Shafi’is who have said that circumcision of girls is compulsory. TheReliance of the Traveller, a respected manual of Shafi’i jurisprudence, states  “Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the clitoris” (section e4.3).  [The English translation by Nuh Ha Mim Keller (certified by Al-Azhar University) disguises the true meaning of the Arabic text by offering the following bogus English ‘translation’: “For men it consists of removing the prepuce from the penis, and for women, removing the prepuce (Ar. Bazr) of the clitoris (n: not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert).” ]

http://www.andrewbostom.org/2008/01/clarification-of-islamic-law-support-for-female-genital-mutilation-by-dr-mark-durie/

For those that deny FGM has anything to do with Islam:

In 2009, the Fatwa Committee of Malaysia's National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs ruled that "female circumcision", as it has become known, was obligatory for Muslims but if harmful must be avoided.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-12-07/an-malaysia-debate-over-female-circumcision/4416298

Non-Muslim women in Indonesia and Philippines being subjected to FGM when marrying a Muslim man which entails converting to Islam.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QT3Tq6FfG0cC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=borneo+animists+fgm&source=bl&ots=C8bXvdX8SY&sig=c6QkT5MPnez6F8RbtYTBqBgIYaE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEwMam-Z7VAhUBLhoKHUMrDUEQ6AEITDAF#v=onepage&q=borneo%20animists%20fgm&f=false

Also this fatwa: https://islamqa.info/en/60314 

Circumcision is not an inherited custom as some people claim, rather it is prescribed in Islam and the scholars are unanimously agreed that it is prescribed. Not a single Muslim scholar – as far as we know – has said that circumcision is not prescribed. 

However, there is considerable debate within Islam regarding FGM:

Many fatwas have been issued on FGM to both support and oppose the practice. This article helps summarise the position: http://www.stopfgmmideast.org/fatwas-against-fgm/

In the UK and very commendably, "[the] Muslim Council of Britain says female genital mutilation is 'un-Islamic'" however it is unclear on what authority their claim that FGM "no longer linked to the teaching of Islam" is based.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jun/23/female-genital-mutilation-muslim-council-britain-unislamic-condemn

The position of the four main schools of Sunni sharia is:

  • The Shafi'i school considers female circumcision to be wajib (obligatory).[36]
  • The Hanbali school considers female circumcision to be makrumah (honorable) and strongly encouraged, to obligatory.[37]
  • The Maliki school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (optional) and preferred.[37]
  • The Hanafi school considers female circumcision to be sunnah (preferred).[37]

The differences in jurist opinions focuses around several hadith from the Sunni collections:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

A summary by country (of variable data quality) can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevalence_of_female_genital_mutilation_by_country

Summary: 

FGM InfoGraphic - Clarion Project

Country: 
France
News Date: 
13/02/2018
Summary: 

The threat of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the heavily migrant-populated Seine-Saint-Denis area in the suburbs of Paris could affect as many as 30 per cent of the children in the area, according to a French sociologist. French sociologist and director of the Group for the Abolition of Sexual Mutilation (GAMS), Isabelle Gillette-Faye has claimed that the prevalence of FGM in the suburbs of Paris, often referred to as no-go areas, in the Île-de-France region are concerning. Gillette-Faye said that

Country: 
Ireland
News Date: 
09/02/2018
Summary: 

Female circumcision "has been described in a horrible way" and should be considered in certain circumstances, a leading member of the Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland has said. Dr Ali Selim called female circumcision "an inherited practice" and said parents should be allowed to have it carried out on their daughter if a doctor says it's necessary. He also said that you "cannot control people" and people will travel overseas for the procedure. Female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), is defined as the partial of total destruction of female genitalia for non-medic

Country: 
Ireland
News Date: 
09/02/2018
Summary: 

Dr Ali Selim of the Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland has said he advocates female circumcision. Female circumcision, also termed female genital mutilation (FGM), is illegal under the Criminal Justice (Female Genital Mutilation) Act 2012. It is estimated that 5,790 girls and women living in Ireland have experienced FGM and some 2,639 girls here may be at risk of being subjected to it. Under 2012 legislation, not only is FGM prohibited in Ireland, it is also a criminal offence for a person to take a girl to another country to undergo it. “I’m not an advocate of female genital mutilation but

Country: 
India
News Date: 
06/02/2018
Summary: 

While 33 per cent of female respondents said FGM has had an adverse impact on their sexual life, 10 per cent of the women reported having frequent urinary tract infections, and incontinence, with one reported case of excessive bleeding. Belying the government’s admission to the Supreme Court that there is no data on the existence of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in India, a new qualitative study shows that 75 per cent of 94 respondents interviewed had subjected their daughters to the practice.

 

Country: 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)
News Date: 
21/07/2015
Summary: 

The disturbing practice of Female Genital Mutilation affects every corner of England and Wales, a report has found. FGM is an extreme form of female circumcision used to control female sexuality but it can lead to severe lifelong emotional and physical damage. It is often practised in African countries such as Sierra Leone but it has been reported in every local authority from Cornwall to Northumberland. In London, 1 in 20 women are likely to be survivors of childhood FGM. But cases are particularly high in cities such as Birmingham, Manchester, Slough, Bristol and Leicester.

Summary: 

There are probably hundreds of fatwas concerning female genital mutilation or „khitan“ which is in Arabic circumcision, some condemning the practice for girls, some allowing it, some recommending it, some requiring it.

A fatwa is a religious ruling which Muslim believers will try to follow, but they are not considered binding. Usually, fatwas are issued by a mufti who works for the national Dar al Ifta (House of rulings) which is in many countries with Muslim majority an official national body. There are Shia and Sunni fatwas and within Sunni Islam the four main law school may each have their own interpretation on a subject. Even within one law school, the rulings in one country differ from those in another country. To complicate things, a fatwa does not have to be issued by an official Mufti, but could also come from other religious scholars.

The believers may follow those fatwas issued by their mufti, but they can also follow a fatwa by a preacher they particularly like, refer to an Internet page specialized in Islamic guidance or they can choose a fatwa suiting best their circumstances. Thus, the fact that a fatwa has been issued against or pro female genital mutilation does not mean that this is the official legal opinion of “Islam” – a common misunderstanding among Westerner who compare such rulings with those of the Catholic Pope.

Country: 
Nigeria
News Date: 
14/01/2018
Summary: 

Graphic images of a young girl being subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) were posted on Facebook by a Nigerian man advertising an eight-day “bonanza” of free cutting in his home, reported CNN.

Country: 
Indonesia
News Date: 
03/01/2018
Summary: 

Female Genital Mutilation has been documented to be practiced in Indonesia since the 17th century. During the past 20 years a number of  regional studies have found a prevalence of more than 90 percent in some areas. It occurs in parts of East, Central and West Java, North Sumatra, Aceh, South Sulawesi and on Madura Island, as well as in many other parts of the archipelago.

Summary: 
  • Unfortunately, for most of women in the Middle East, veils are not an "exciting development", but an imposition by an obscurantist ideology. After the Islamic State was defeated in Raqqa, Syria, many women took to the streets to take off their veils and were filmed burning them.

  • "The enemies of freedom are first recruited from the free societies, from some of the enlightened elites who deny the benefit of democratic rights to the rest of humanity, even to their own compatriots, if they have the misfortune to belong to another religion, to another ethnicity." — Pascal Bruckner, author.

  • Instead of embracing these veils, a true feminism should defend the rights and freedoms of all women. It should not be ideologically submissive to those who repress women.

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