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Female genital mutilation (FGM) or (FGC) is practised in 30 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa,[5] in parts of the Middle East[6][7] and Asia,[8][9]and within some immigrant communities in Europe, North America and Australia.[5][10] The WHO defines the practice as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons."[11]

According to a 2013 UNICEF report covering 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East, Egypt has the region's highest total number of women that have undergone FGM (27.2 million), while Somalia has the highest percentage (prevalence) of FGM (98%).[3]

The world's first known campaign against FGM took place in Egypt already in the 1920s,[3] but FGM prevalence in Egypt in 1995 was still at least as high as Somalia's 2013 world record (98%), despite dropping significantly since then among young women.[12] Estimates of the prevalence of FGM vary according to source.


Slavery in the Muslim world first developed out of the slavery practices of pre-Islamic Arabia,[1] and were at times radically different, depending on social-political factors such as the Arab slave trade. Two rough estimates by scholars of the number of slaves held over twelve centuries in Muslim lands are 11.5 million[2] and 14 million.[3][4]
Because internal growth of the slave population was not enough to fulfill the demand in Muslim society, massive numbers of non-Muslim slaves were imported, resulting in enormous suffering and loss of life from their capture and transportation.[15]

The Arab slave trade was most active in West Asia, North Africa, and Southeast Africa. In the early 20th century (post World War I), slavery was gradually outlawed and suppressed in Muslim lands, largely due to pressure exerted by Western nations such as Britain and France.[5] Among the last states to abolish slavery were Saudi Arabia and Yemen, which abolished slavery in 1962 under pressure from Britain; Oman in 1970, and Mauritania in 1905, 1981, and again in August 2007.[16] However, slavery claiming the sanction of Islam is documented presently in the predominantly Islamic countries of Chad, Mauritania, Niger, Mali, and Sudan.[17][18]


The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight,[5] as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination.[6] During the nine-month-longBangladesh war for independence, members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias from Jamaat e Islami killed an estimated up to 3,000,000[4][7] people and raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women[7] in a systematic campaign ofgenocidal rape.[8][9] These actions against women were supported by Imams and Muslim religious leaders, who declared that Bengali women were 'war booty'.[10] It 

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